Manufacturing process - Rug knotting techniques:
woven, knotted or tufted

Production process loom

The art of rug making

Despite the technical progress in many other crafts, the art of rug making is still very much the same as it was a hundred years ago. The know-how has been passed down through generations and involves numerous steps, each requiring extensive skills.

The world of rugs offers a variety of different production processes such as knotting and weaving techniques. Now, you may be asking yourself what exactly does knotted, woven or tufted mean? We are very pleased to be able to shed light on this and explain the methods along with the benefits of the arts of knotting.

Rugs may be made by hand or by machine, depending on the material, purpose and style. Either way, each design is a craft art in itself. This is how manufacturers produce rugs that turn your rooms into an oasis of well-being that has a positive effect on the indoor climate and can act as dirt and sound absorbers.
Production of ball yarn

Manufacturing process of rugs in detail

Tufting: The tufting technique is often used in the manufacture of rugs. This special procedure makes it possible for various products to be manufactured economically. The terms tufting or tufted come from the English term "tuft" - literally: "tuft". In the tufting process, the pile yarn (top layer) is stitched into a prefabricated backing material. To attach the pile tuft to the backing material, a latex coating, made primarily of latex or polyurethane, is applied to the rear of the backing material. A foam back or a fabric laminate are also possible alternatives here. Rugs produced using this technique are described as "tufted". In Germany, these rugs are now one of the most popular forms of flooring: about 85 % are tufted, about 10 % are woven and the rest are fibre-bonded. Further processing determines the surface, such as looped and velour pile.

Weaving: In the weaving process the warp yarns (held lengthways in the loom) are split with some being lowered and some raised using appropriate instruments. This creates an opening between the warp yarns, known as the shed. A shuttle carrying the weft thread moves through this shed. The alternate lifting and lowering of the warp yarns means these lie above and below the weft yarn, thereby creating a weave. This traditional process is still used by some manufacturers in small and large widths — and by using synthetic fibres you can achieve a completely new quality. The highest of comfort is guaranteed in this manufacturing process, but of course comes at a price.

Fibre-bonded procedure: A fibre-bonded rug refers to a textile covering made up of one or more textile layers. The layers consist of a random arrangement of staple fibres that are matted together through felting. The rug can be made with or without a backing material, and a chemical or thermal weave provides additional stability. Fibre-bonded rugs are particularly well suited to heavily-used rooms.

Kugelgarn®: Kugelgarn® flooring is related to the fibre-bonded procedure and was developed by the Swiss company FABROMONT. Kugelgarn® rugs are easy to manufacture. The high density of the Kugelgarn® fibres means that joins and cut edges are barely visible after installation. The product direction can also be freely chosen, with offcuts amounting to just 3 to 5 %. In contrast to the woven and tufted goods, the top layer is not made of long woven or endless yarns, but rather from fibres twisted into balls.
Surface carpet manufacturing process

Surfaces of tufted processes

Velour: Velours bedeutet übersetzt “samtartiges Gewebe”. The loops created during tufting are cut in the machine. „to cut“ - schneiden). The cut refers to the velour tufts of standard spun or filament yarn of medium-length pile that open up in a similar way to a shaving brush and form a velour-like surface.

Special note: Shading

The sumptuously soft surface and rich shading effect of velour rugs makes them very popular. In rare cases, permanent shading effects may occur during use: Regardless of walkways or particularly heavy traffic areas, water-like contours develop on the floor. These swirly changes cannot be removed through brushing or by using water. On velour rugs, shading can occur regardless of the material used and can occur on both natural and synthetic fibres. The production method is also not a deciding factor here. Shading effects occur both in machine-made and hand-knotted rugs. It is purely a visual phenomenon that does not affect the suitability for use and cannot be influenced by the manufacturer and/or fitter.

Frieze: With twisted or frieze velour, the yarn is twisted very tightly and then set. This surface is extremely practical for everyday use and is particularly resistant to foot marks and walkway formations.

Saxony: The technical term for a soft deep-pile rug is Saxony. It has a pile length of approx. 9 mm and consists of heatset thread or yarn (finishing processes, the product undergoes a heat treatment and shrinks). The additional twisting rotation results in a hard closed yarn seal, which offers better resistance to compression caused by treading and static loads (e.g. chair legs) than individual yarn fibres of standard velour — a grainy surface look is typical here.

Loop: Loop rugs are made of consecutive small loops of equal length. The special manufacturing process makes the floor coverings of looped products extremely robust and durable. Unlike velour, loops are springy by nature: They are pressed together under load, and then bounce back.

Structured loops: Unlike standard looped products, the structured loop pile rug consists of yarn loops of varying lengths. This creates a charming structured effect.

Multi-level structure: The multi-level structure creates a very popular surface pattern. A 3D effect stands out particularly well here.

Production process Hochtief weaving technique

Several different procedures are used for multi-level loops

Cut-loop and multi-level cut-loop are the names give to high-quality styling of multi-level patterning. For this technique, the pattern-forming high-loops are cut in the tufting machine. The high-loop thereby creates a clearly distinguished high velour surface compared to the short loop surface. A cut-loop is always the plush part of the multi-level pattern, usually with a velvety surface.

The cut-loop Saxony or the multi-level cut-loop Saxony are cut-loop products made of heatset twisted yarn. This yarn has a stabilising effect for the more sensitive areas in particular (buckling effect only in a small linked area). Both cut-loop Saxony and multi-level cut-loop Saxony are very high-end in the tufted rug range and are particularly resistant to high traffic.

Multi-level tip-sheared: is the English term for "top-shaved". Special feature of this technology: The high-loops are shaved by a machine at a later stage. Not all of the high loops are shaved, and so the remaining loops create small "streaks" with a dull velour surface. This is how the special characteristics of the multi-level tip sheared rug are formed.

Cross-over: The English word cross-over is considered a fixed term in the tuft pattern. Differently coloured yarns (different tones or contrasting colours) are looped in the tufting machine according to a predefined pattern and are threaded into the needles of the needle bar. Tufted patterns are used where small designs ("designs" are continuous patterns on fabric) of a single colour cannot be created using printing or where large contour distortions could occur. Cross-over is also used for geometric designs in woven rugs because the yarns are coloured all the way down to the weave, which is not the case with printing. The technical terms for tufted patterned surfaces are COC (cross-over cut) for velour products and COL (cross-over loop) for looped products. A tuft patterned coloured rug will generally look more elegant than a printed rug because it is coloured throughout. In the case of small patterned tuft coverings, when laying in the seam area great care must be taken avoid a "zipping effect".

Flat woven carpet manufacturing process

Structured rugs

Carving: Applying the carving process to frieze rugs can result in the most elegant of patterns. There are no limits to the imagination here! Waves, flowers and all sorts of imaginative patterns can be cut into the rear of the rug. The thing that is special here is that this is not a mechanical process, but rather individual cuts are skilfully made by hand.

Flat-weave: Flat-weave rugs offer very hard-wearing and easy-care flooring without pile. Depending on the styling, they can have a very smooth or textured surface. Flat-weave rugs are available in a variety of surfaces — from simple with the basic weaves to a number of leads with increasing details. Flat-weave refers to weaves that are woven on a "flat" loom with a horizontal, i.e. level warp, where the weft yarns can be entered from selvedge to selvedge with a shuttle. The robust materials and the particularly flat-weave structure mean these rugs are ideal for hallways, kitchens and landings, and are particularly popular in materials such as Sisal, jute or synthetic fibres.

Rug selection with special knotting techniques

  • Woven Rug Kilim Mottled Beige
    Woven Rug Kilim Mottled Beige
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  • Designer rug mottled grey and beige
    Designer rug mottled grey and beige
    Select Size
  • Designer Rug Geometric Shapes Green
    Designer Rug Geometric Shapes Green
    Select Size
  • Elegant Rug shaggy Plain White
    Elegant Rug shaggy Plain White
    Select Size
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